Modern chemical industry

2017-08-07 12:33:31 阅读 6

Since the 1960s and 1970s, there has been a fierce competition among enterprises in the chemical industry. On the one hand, due to the deep understanding of the reaction process, it is possible to reduce the cost by making the production equipment of some traditional basic chemical products more and more. At the same time, As a result of the rise of the new technological revolution, the chemical industry has put forward new requirements, promoted the technological progress of the chemical industry, the development of fine chemicals, ultra-pure materials, new structural materials and functional materials.


Large - scale


In 1963, the United States Kellogg design and construction of the first set of Nissan 540t (600sh.t) synthetic ammonia single series device, is a large-scale chemical production device logo. From the 1970s onwards, synthetic ammonia single series production capacity has been developed to Nissan 900 ~ 1350t, 80 years of Nissan 1800 ~ 2700t synthetic ammonia design, the total energy consumption of tons of ammonia decreased significantly. Ethylene single series of production scale, from the 50's annual production 50kt to the 70's annual output of 100 ~ 300kt, 80 early The new ethylene plant has an annual production capacity of 680kt. As the metallurgical industry provides high temperature resistant tubing, the millisecond cracking furnace is achieved, resulting in increased olefin yields and reduced energy consumption. Other chemical production units such as sulfuric acid, caustic soda , The basic organic raw materials, synthetic materials, etc. to large-scale development.This reduces the environmental pollution, improve the reliability of long-term operation, and promote the safety and environmental protection prediction and the rapid development of protective technology.


Chemicals


Since the 1960s, large-scale integrated circuits and electronics have developed rapidly, and the device materials and information recording materials for electronic computers have been developed since the 1960s, and the output of polysilicon and monocrystalline silicon has grown at a rate of 20% per year. The binary compounds of the ~ V family have been used in electronic devices. As the development of semiconductor devices, gaseous sources such as phosphine (PH) are becoming more and more important. In the preparation of large scale integrated circuits, The content of less than 1ppm, the moisture content and dust content is also a strict requirement.Multi-scale integrated circuit of another substrate, its quality and stability of a direct impact on its integration and yield.In addition, the matrix material, sealing materials, flux, etc. But also strict requirements .1963, the Netherlands Philips company after the success of the development of cassette recording, it is not only used for audio recording, video recording, more importantly, for the calculator as the external memory and memory, tape , Magnetic disks, drums, magnetic foams, magnetic cards, etc. For important information materials, not only for optical fiber communication, but also in industry, medical as an endoscope material.


Polymer synthetic materials


60 years have begun to use (commonly known as nylon), polyacetal (such as) ,, and acrylonitrile - butadiene - styrene terpolymer () as a structural material. They have high strength, impact resistance, wear , Anti-chemical corrosion, good heat resistance, excellent electrical properties and other characteristics, and light weight, easy to shape, widely used in automobiles, electrical appliances, building materials, packaging, etc. After the 60's, there ,,, It is resistant to high temperature, high vacuum, self-lubricating material and can be used in spacecraft, and its fiber can be used as anti-radiation for aerospace clothing.Polybenzothiazole and polybenzimidazole are high temperature resistant resin, high heat resistance and can be used for ablation Materials, for rocket. Copolymerization, blending and compounding Modification of structural materials such as polyol prepolymer with catalyzed reaction for nylon polyether block copolymers with high impact strength and heat resistance for agricultural and Building machinery. The other is a fiber reinforced resin polymer composite materials used mainly epoxy resin, unsaturated polyester, polyamide polyimide used for glass fiber, or (commonly used acrylonitrile or asphalt These composite materials are lighter in weight It is especially suitable for structural parts of aerospace, aviation and other transportation tools to replace metal, save energy and rapid development of fluorine-containing materials, because of their outstanding resistance to high and low temperature performance, excellent electrical properties Anti-aging, radiation-resistant, widely used in the electronics and electrical industry, the atomic energy industry and the aerospace industry, and because of their physical compatibility, can be used for artificial organs and biomedical equipment.


Energy materials


50 years of atomic energy industry began to develop, requiring chemical companies to produce heavy water, absorb neutron materials and heat transfer materials to meet the needs of aerospace industry needs high energy. Solid propellant by the adhesive, plasticizer, oxidants and additives composed of liquid high-energy fuel Liquid hydrogen, kerosene, dimethyl hydrazine, anhydrous hydrazine, etc., oxidants are liquid oxygen, smoke nitric acid, nitrous oxide. These products have strict performance requirements, has formed a specialized production industry.In order to meet the energy and Environmental requirements, in 1960 the United States try to make a practical film to dilute, deal with industrial sewage, and later expanded for the pharmaceutical, food industry.But the membrane is easy to biodegradable, easy to hydrolyze, short life. , The development of aromatic polyamide reverse osmosis membrane, it can be biodegradable, but not anti-free chlorine .1971 years, the improved composite membrane for desalination, per cubic meter of fresh water consumption only 23.7 ~ 28.4MJ In addition, also Developed with a membrane, etc. Polysulfone hollow fiber gas separation membrane for the synthesis of ammonia tail gas hydrogen and nitrogen separation and a variety of other gas separation. This technology is separated from other industries In 1971, the United States Ford Motor Company and Westinghouse Electric Company to β-silicon nitride (β-SiN) for the gas turbine turbine structural materials, the use of nano- Operating temperature was as high as 1370 ℃, improve efficiency, save fuel, reduce pollution, as a good energy-saving materials, but after 10 years of testing, there are still many problems, still need to further improve. Is mainly used for ceramic engine, turbine blades, Conductive ceramics, artificial bones, etc. The main products of ceramics are oxides, such as alumina (AlO), zirconium oxide (ZrO) and the like, and non-oxide systems such as carbides (SiC), nitrides (BN) Silicon nitride (SiN), etc. 80 years, in order to improve the brittle ceramic, but also in the development of silicon fiber reinforced ceramic.


Special chemicals have been further developed, with little or no increase in the use of other products to give specific functions, such as food and feed additives, plastics and rubber chemicals, leather, paper, oil and other special chemical Products, as well as adhesives, antioxidants, surfactants, water treatment agents, catalysts, etc. In terms of catalyst, due to the development of modern instruments such as electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy, it is helpful to understand the catalytic mechanism and thus prepare various Special catalyst, marking catalyst into a new stage.


Key points for the development of chemical industry - fine chemical industry


Fine chemicals include pharmaceuticals, pesticides, synthetic dyes, organic pigments, paints, fragrances and fragrances, cosmetics and toilet products, soap and synthetic detergents, surfactants, printing inks and their additives, adhesives, photographic materials, magnetic Materials, catalysts, reagents, water treatment agents and polymer flocculants, paper auxiliaries, leather auxiliaries, synthetic materials additives, textile dyes and finishing agents, food additives, feed additives, animal drugs, oilfield chemicals, petroleum additives And refining additives, cement additives, mineral flotation agent, casting chemicals, metal surface treatment agent, synthetic lubricants and lubricants additives, automotive chemicals, aromatic deodorant, industrial anti-bacterial fungicide, electronic Chemicals and materials, functional polymer materials, bio-chemical products, such as more than 40 industries and categories. With the development of the national economy, the development and application of fine chemicals will continue to develop, new categories will continue to increase.


Fine chemicals the term, has long been used, the original production of small, high purity, expensive chemical products, such as medicine, dyes, coatings and so on. However, this meaning has not fully revealed the essence of fine chemicals. Since the 21st century, national experts on the definition of fine chemicals have some new insights, some countries in Europe and America to produce small, according to different chemical structure of the production and sale of chemical substances, known as fine chemicals (fine chemicals); the output Small, processed, specially designed or end-use of the product, known as special chemicals (specialty chemicals). China, Japan and so on these two types of products collectively referred to as fine chemicals.


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