Chemical energy

2017-08-07 12:34:14 阅读 31

Ancient chemistry


The history of chemical processing before the formation of the industry can be traced back from the mid-18th century to the ancient times. Since then, humans can use chemical processing methods to produce some necessities such as pottery, brewing, dyeing, smelting, making lacquers, Manufacture medicine, gunpowder and soap.


In the Chinese Neolithic cave there is a residual pottery. BC around the 50th century Yangshao culture, there have been red pottery, gray pottery, black pottery, pottery and so on (see color map [China Neolithic period (2500 BC (681 ~ 618) fired three-color pottery camel], [the Western Han Dynasty (206 ~ AD 25 years) produced the muffled lacquer] ", [Tang Dynasty (618 ~ 907) celadon water injection of the state kiln], [Chinese ancient alchemy white sketch].) In China, Zhejiang Hemudu unearthed cultural relics, the same period of the wooden bowl, painted red red paint. Shang Dynasty (17 BC In the twentieth century BC, Xia Yu was used as a drink and used for sacrifices. In the 25th century BC, Egypt used the dyestuffs. In the twentieth century BC, there were lacquerware in the ruins of the Warring States Period (BC 475 ~ In the 21st century BC, China has entered the Bronze Age, the 5th century BC, into the Iron Age, with the smelting of copper, iron making weapons, farming tools, cooking utensils, tableware, musical instruments, currency, etc. Salt, early for food , In the 11th century BC, Zhou has been equipped with palm salt government officials. BC 7 ~ the first 6 century , The Phoenicians made suede with goat fat and ash, and the papermaking process was perfect when the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty was in the 1st century.


China and Europe into the alchemy, alchemy period.China because of refining raw drugs, and the study of medicine in the Qin and Han Dynasties completed the earliest drug monograph "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic", recorded moving, Mineral products 365. 16 century, Li Shizhen's "Compendium of Materia Medica" summed up the previous drug culmination, with a high academic level.In addition, 7 to 9 century has been on the three ingredients mixing method records, and in the early Song Dynasty Has been used as a military since the third century, since the third century, since the founding of alchemy, until the 15th century by alchemy gradually turned to pharmaceutical, known as 15 to 17 century for the pharmaceutical period.In the pharmaceutical research in order to prepare drugs, acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and Organic acid, although it did not form industry, but it led to the development of chemical preparation methods for the mid-18th century the establishment of the chemical industry, prepared the conditions.


Energy can be divided into primary and secondary energy sources. Primary energy refers to the heat from the nature, and can be directly applied to the heat or power, usually including coal, oil and so on. Consumption is very huge world of energy, mainly fossil fuels. In 1985, the world's primary energy consumption reached 10610Mt of standard coal, including 39.9% of oil, 29.7% of coal, 21.1% of natural gas, 7.7% of water and 4.9% of nuclear power. China's primary energy consumption reached 764Mt of standard coal, 75.9% of coal, 17.1 % 4.8% for water and 2.2% for natural gas. Secondary energy (except electricity) usually refers to the use of primary energy (mainly fossil fuels) through a variety of chemical process processing, the use of higher value fuel. Such as gasoline, jet fuel, diesel oil, heavy oil and other liquid fuels obtained from petroleum refining, which are widely used in automobiles, aircraft, ships, etc., are important materials for modern transportation and military; and industrial industries made of coal Gas, civil gas and other important gas fuel; in addition, from coal and oil shale made of artificial oil.


Chemical and energy relations are very close, but also in the fossil fuels and its derivatives is not only energy, but also an important raw material for the chemical industry. Based on the oil, the formation of a modern powerful petrochemical industry, to produce thousands of petrochemical products. In chemical production, some of the material is a process (such as syngas production) in the fuel, but also raw materials, the two combined into one. So the chemical production is both the production of secondary energy sector, itself is often a large energy consumption.


Fossil fuels, especially coal processing and applications, often produce sewage, solid waste and harmful gases that cause environmental pollution. For the prevention and control of pollution, but also depends on a variety of chemical technology applications.


China's energy production has made great progress since 1949, but energy (especially oil) is still an important factor restricting the development of national economy, so energy production and conservation is very important. Improve the chemical production process, reduce energy consumption, both to reduce production costs and improve economic efficiency, but also conducive to ease the level of energy tensions.


In the long run, fossil fuels will continue to dominate the region in the first half of the 21st century, around the world. With the passage of time, due to fossil fuel resources, in addition to the conventional energy, a number of unconventional energy development will be more and more attention. Unconventional energy refers to nuclear energy and new energy sources, which include wave energy, ocean energy and bioenergy (such as biogas). In the long process of solar energy, nuclear energy utilization research and development and large-scale application, chemical engineering and chemical production technology is also very useful.


Other technology


The driving force for the development of chemical industry is the need for chemical and industrial production and people's life on chemicals. It relies on chemistry, physics, mathematics and various engineering techniques. Which is particularly closely related to the chemical, chemical industry is not allowed to leave the discipline for a moment. Between them, there have been "industrial chemistry", "applied chemistry" and other disciplines, played a certain historical role. Chemical infrastructure can not be separated from civil engineering, electrical engineering. Chemical machinery manufacturing can not be separated from mechanical engineering and a variety of metal materials, especially stainless steel, and even special steel. Chemical machinery special attention to the high temperature, high pressure reliability, refers to the system, equipment, components in the specified conditions to complete the required function of the probability. Modern chemical equipment tends to large-scale, single-series production, for the reliability of the study is particularly important.


Chemical process control can not be separated from electronics, computer and automation, these theories and instruments, not only can be used in production, and even can be used to solve the development forecasting, decision-making and management issues. In the 1980s, a number of areas flourished in the new technological revolution, in addition to the aforementioned energy and materials, microelectronics and biotechnology and other cutting-edge science, with their own vitality, the chemical put forward higher requirements, so the chemical Push forward.


Microelectronics technology can not be separated from microelectronics technology. In microelectronics technology, large-scale and ultra-large scale integrated circuit applications, the chemical put forward new requirements. Such as ultrapure gas and pure water, reagents for the electronics industry, photoresists, liquid crystals and etchants, dopants, adhesives and the like.


Microelectronics technology used in dozens of ultra-pure gas, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon and other common gases, there are borane, boron trichloride, dichlorosilane, carbon tetrafluoride and other natural The presence of gas. The purity of the chemical products used has a great impact on the finished semiconductor products. When using industrial gases, the yield is only 10%; the use of impurities containing less than 10ppm of the gas and the corresponding high-purity chemical reagents, the yield can be increased to 70% to 80%. With water, the integration of 1Mb integrated circuit, allowing the particle size of water particles is not greater than 0.1μm. In order to produce close to the theory of pure water, the production method from the distillation, ion exchange development to the 1970s membrane separation and ion exchange method, so that pure water preparation technology to a new level.


Microelectronic devices are the key to the production of photoresist. Ultra-large scale integrated circuit used in the photoresist is made of aromatic azide compound photosensitive resin, the advantage is high resolution, easy to glue, the image is clear. Liquid crystal is an indispensable display material in microelectronic devices. It is an organic compound, due to the requirements of the display of a single liquid crystal can not meet this requirement, with a variety of the same type or different types of liquid crystal mixed use.


Biotechnology Microbes are a viable cell catalyst that converts raw materials into products at atmospheric pressure and at low temperatures through a fermentation process. Over the years, the use of this traditional biotechnology to produce ethanol, butanol, acetone, acetic acid and other products. Research and development of the use of immobilized cells, acrylonitrile from the production of acrylamide, the yield of up to 99.8%. In addition, an enzyme catalyst, in particular an immobilized enzyme, can be used to produce an organic product. Biotechnology for chemical, less investment, saving energy and raw materials, less pollution, can be made using conventional methods difficult to prepare substances such as interferon, insulin, monoclonal antibodies. These drugs are prepared using recombinant DNA technology, is expected to make the pharmaceutical industry a new look.


Biotechnology has put forward new requirements for chemical engineering, mainly to solve the biochemical reactor suitable for large-scale cultivation of microorganisms, to meet the complex biochemical reaction process separation technology and process control. In this regard, has formed a new edge of the discipline ─ ─ biochemical engineering, it is the chemical engineering theory, applied to the biocatalyst, biochemical reaction engineering and new unit operation of the research and development, made a lot


Chemical work as a knowledge category, in a variety of different historical periods, at different requirements of the different purposes, there are a variety of decomposition or integrated classification method. Can be in accordance with the source of raw materials, product nature classification, but also in accordance with the process of law, historical classification. Each division method is difficult to strictly adapt. This volume seeks to reduce the unnecessary cross, take a comprehensive classification of the method, the design of the fuel from the starting chemical branch; from the product of inorganic chemicals, basic organic chemicals, polymer chemicals, fine chemicals and other branches; The process of departure from the branch of chemical engineering, as well as from the historical development and horizontal links starting from the branch. Fuel chemical raw materials are oil, natural gas, coal and oil shale and other combustible minerals, so it is divided into oil refining industry, petrochemical, natural gas chemical industry, coal chemical industry and shale oil industry. Among them, the oil refining industry is to create a higher output value of the industrial sector, is the country's important economic lifeline. Natural gas often coexist with oil, but also often natural gas chemical belongs to petrochemical industry. At this stage, oil refining and petrochemical industry is the main fuel chemical industry. Fuel chemical products include fuel and chemical raw materials, which are mainly organic chemical raw materials (in addition to synthetic gas is also used in the production of inorganic chemical products, such as synthetic ammonia). Therefore, petrochemicals are also the main components of basic organic chemicals. By the petrochemical industry can produce plastic, synthetic rubber, synthetic fiber and other three synthetic materials, which is the main product of polymer chemicals. Therefore, the fuel chemical industry, the basic organic chemical and polymer chemical three are organically linked together. As for the inorganic chemical raw materials used both combustible minerals, but also inorganic minerals. Its products are mainly fertilizer, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, phosphoric acid and other acids, soda ash, caustic soda and other alkali, as well as inorganic salts, industrial gases and inorganic non-metallic materials. Silicate materials in inorganic nonmetallic materials are sometimes classified as traditional building materials. Fine chemical production of small quantities, with a special function, mainly for the consumption of chemicals. Due to the development of market demand, some products have become large quantities of products, but by convention, often still regarded as fine chemical products. Mainly dyes, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, explosives and explosives, information recording materials, coatings, pigments, adhesives, catalysts, various additives and chemical reagents. Medicine and the production of explosives and explosives are often divided to draw, then the fine chemical industry is both inorganic, there are organic, as well as polymer, is a focus on the use of functional integrated sector. In the new technological revolution in the development of microelectronics, biotechnology and new materials, fine chemicals have added new vitality to the chemical industry.


Chemical engineering is divided into chemical thermodynamics, transfer process, unit operation, chemical reaction engineering and chemical system engineering. The first two are the theoretical basis of chemical engineering, unit operation is the earliest concept of chemical engineering, it is the chemical process of chemical production is broken down into several units, such as fluid transport, distillation, extraction, heat transfer, drying and so on. These unit operations not only play an important role in chemical production, but also widely used in metallurgy, light industry, food, nuclear industry and chemical industry has common characteristics of the industrial field. Unit operation is still continuing to develop and improve, such as the 21st century development of particle science, as a powder engineering theory, has been applied to the catalyst particle size design, high temperature gas dust, grain drying and transportation. The chemical reaction works focus on the industrial scale of the chemical reaction process of transmission and kinetics of the law to address the design and amplification of the reactor. As for the chemical system engineering, it is the use of systems engineering theory and methods to solve the chemical process optimization problem of marginal disciplines.


Chemical contains the core content can be summarized in the above six branches, and the review is also composed of the six branches. However, this classification method is not entirely reasonable, such as the catalyst industry is included in the fine chemical industry. Although theoretically, the catalyst has a special function to speed up the reaction rate, is not involved in the reaction of a small amount of material, but in large-scale production today, the catalyst production and loading is also quite large, China 1985 oil refining catalyst Up to 20kt. And the use of catalysts throughout the fuel, inorganic, organic, polymer and fine chemicals and other fields. There are many such problems with attribution.


In addition, environmental protection is not only the chemical industry departments continue to solve the common problem, but also to contribute to the chemical industry. The rise of the modern chemical industry in the 18th century has so far been more than 200 years of history, creating numerous chemical products, but also emissions of waste, waste, waste, polluted the environment. Therefore, people require chemical use, as a non-discharge project. The development of other sectors of the national economy is more or less harmful. Over time, beyond the natural environment of self-purification capacity of emissions, will make the human living environment deteriorating. Therefore, people of insight on the world of the atmosphere, water, soil, biological contamination and damage, issued a warning. In order to solve the pollution, protect the environment, so that the ecological balance of nature to a new harmony, chemical industry will become a main force.


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