Development History

2017-08-07 12:36:13 阅读 6

Overview


Human beings in order to survive and develop, and continue to fight with nature, and gradually deepen the understanding of the surrounding world, thus mastering the ability to conquer nature, transform the world. After a long history of practice, mankind is more good at using natural conditions, and for their own to create a rich material world.


Ancient people's lives rely more on direct use, or extract what they need. Because of the inherent performance of these substances can not meet the needs of people, they have produced a variety of processing technology, the natural material into a variety of properties with a new material, and gradually on the scale of industrial production to achieve. At first, the production of such products is hand workshop, and later evolved into a factory, and gradually formed a specific production sector, the chemical industry. With the development of productive forces, some production sectors, such as metallurgy, oil refining, paper making, tanning, have been separated from the chemical industry as an independent production sector. When the large-scale oil refining industry and petrochemical industry after the vigorous development of chemical, physics, mathematics and other engineering and technology, to study the common laws of chemical production process to solve the scale of large and large number of engineering and technical problems Of the discipline - further improve the chemical engineering. It brings the production of chemical industry to a new level, from the experience or semi-empirical state into the new stage of theory and prediction (see the history of chemical engineering), so that the chemical industry with its greater production capacity to create a large number of substances for the human Wealth, accelerated the process of human social development.


In modern Chinese, the chemical industry, chemical engineering and chemical processes are referred to as chemical, they appear in different historical periods, have different meanings, but closely related, mutual penetration. In the minds of people, the word "chemical" has become a synonym for the general knowledge of the category and cause, and its significance in the national economy and engineering technology has aroused widespread interest and attracted thousands Tens of thousands of people, for their dedication to life. The following brief description of all aspects of human social life, to illustrate the colorful chemical content and its important contribution.


From the data point of view, from January to April 2013, China's crude oil processing capacity of 158.683 million tons, an increase of 3.2%; ethylene production of 5.298 million tons, an increase of 3.0%; synthetic resin production of 18.518 million tons, an increase of 9.8 %; Synthetic fiber monomer production of 7.368 million tons, an increase of 1.4%; synthetic rubber production of 13.21 million tons, an increase of 7.4%. Ethylene production reversed the negative growth, but the growth rate is very low, the three synthetic also low growth.


Petrochemical of the major sub-sectors of the profitability of the basic showed a slight rebound. Among them, the organic chemical raw materials manufacturing industry to achieve the main business income of 432.218 billion yuan, an increase of 15.2%, the total profit of 11.1 billion yuan, an increase of 2.3%; synthetic resin manufacturing industry to achieve the main business income of 242.701 billion yuan, an increase of 13.5% , The total profit of 8.03 billion yuan, an increase of 11.9%; synthetic rubber manufacturing industry to achieve the main business income of 38.833 billion yuan, an increase of 24.9%, total profit of 2.17 billion yuan, an increase of 17.2%; synthetic fiber monomer (polymerization) Manufacturing industry to achieve the main business income of 94.606 billion yuan, down 4.4%, the total profit of -62 billion yuan.


From the major sub-sectors, synthetic fiber monomer (polymer) manufacturing industry due to a sharp decline in cotton prices and other factors, the industry losses. Organic chemical raw materials manufacturing and synthetic resin manufacturing industry, the two largest sub-sectors of the profitability of the weak rebound, which largely reflects the economic fundamentals of the cold side.


From the 2013 situation, although the price of crude oil stabilized at 100 US dollars / barrel (Brent) up and down, for the entire petrochemical industry chain is still more favorable, but due to the continued weakness of the real economy caused by the decline in the demand side , Will form a shock to the entire industry. Investment in fixed assets will decline, the operating rate will decline, the industry's economic activity will decline, the decline in chemical industry will become long and the bottom can not be clear.


Overall performance in the doldrums


June 23, 2013, according to the relevant data show that the chemical industry index of 900 points, lower than last July after the international crude oil plunged after the low of 929 points. As of June 12, the domestic chemical industry boom far lower than last year, in the focus of monitoring 109 chemical representative products, rose only 19 varieties, accounting for 17.43% of the monitoring species, the largest increase in liquid chlorine, hydrochloric acid , Up about 40%, but both are chlor-alkali industry's secondary products, industry influence is small.


Chemical market operation resistance mainly comes from the contradiction between supply and demand, the first half of the market demand showed "premature start, lack of stamina" characteristics of the middle and lower reaches of the Spring Festival early stocking, but failed to usher in the spring market, in June generally fall into full industry The chain is light. In addition, the international market is also extremely depressed, can not boost the domestic market, even soda ash, urea and other products to break the export volume records, which is the production enterprises in the substantial profits on the basis of the pressure to reduce inventory pressure on the move.


Structural highlights still exist


Data show that in 2011 the global pesticide market size of about 50.3 billion US dollars, of which 44 billion US dollars of chemical pesticides, an increase of 13.4% and 14.9% respectively, is expected to reach 68.5 billion US dollars in 2017, the global pesticide industry is expected to take Down five years to 5.5% compound annual growth rate continued good development. The rapid development of China's pesticide industry benefited from the low cost of manufacturing and the resulting industrial transfer, environmental protection requirements are also conducive to production capacity to the advantages of concentration.


Revolutionary assistant


From the time the formation of the chemical industry, the chemical industry to provide the necessary basic material. As an assistant to the industrial revolution of all times, it is the historical mission it carries. 18 to the 19th century industrial revolution period, handicraft production into machine production, steam engine invented, the socialization of large production began, which is the formation of modern chemical industry. Facing the urgent need of industrial revolution, Lu Boulan legal soda ash and other technologies came into being, which makes the existing lead room legal system of sulfuric acid has also been developed to solve the industrial acid and alkali needs. At the same time, with the rise of ironmaking and coking industry, organic chemicals separated from coal tar and acetylene based on calcium carbide have also been developed. Synthetic dyes, chemical synthetic drugs, synthetic spices have come out, rubber tires, celluloid and nitrocellulose, etc. are also put into production. In this way, the early chemical industry for the textile industry, transportation, electricity industry and machinery manufacturing industry to provide the necessary raw materials and auxiliary products, contributed to the success of the industrial revolution.


Twentieth Century after two world wars, on the one hand the oil refining industry in the catalytic cracking, catalytic reform and other technologies have emerged, so that steam, coal, diesel and lubricating oil production has increased significantly, especially propylene hydration After the industrialization of propanol, hydrocarbon cracking and the production of ethylene and propylene and other processes have been successful, so that the basic organic chemical production based on the strong technical base of petrochemical, which can be for the industrial sector to provide a large number of organic raw materials, solvents, The Since then, people often hydrocarbon cracking the ability to produce ethylene, as a national petrochemical productivity development signs. On the other hand, the Haber-Bosch synthetic ammonia high-pressure high-temperature technology is industrially realized, nitric acid is put into production, so that a large number of nitrification substances appear, especially the development of the pyrolysis industry from the black powder to the Okto, A dozen times. This is not only to solve the urgent need for war, more importantly, in the mines, railways, bridges and other civilian blasting project, has been applied. In addition, chemical engineering has made a critical contribution to the use of rocket propellants in isotope separation and aerospace engineering in nuclear engineering.


Agricultural pillar


For a long time, human food and clothing mainly rely on agriculture. The agriculture since the ancient slash and burn began, has been relying on a large number of human labor, subject to a variety of natural conditions, the development is very slow. 19th century, the use of agricultural machinery, and gradually improve the labor situation. However, in agricultural production, the real increase in production per unit area, it is the application of fertilizer, pesticide later things. Practice has proved that the agricultural production measures, the role of fertilizer 40% to 65%. In the vigorous development of petrochemical on the basis of synthetic ammonia and urea production of large-scale, so that chemical fertilizer production in chemical products occupy a large proportion. In 1985 the world's total fertilizer production of about 140Mt, as one of the bulk of chemical products. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium compound fertilizer and trace element fertilizer development, and further meet the different soil structure, the needs of different crops.


In the early days, humans used natural crop pests and diseases. Until the end of the 19th century, after the formation of modern chemical industry, the use of Paris green (arsenic preparations) to kill potato beetles, Bordeaux liquid control grape downy mildew, agriculture began a new era of chemical control. In the 1940s, there were insecticides and herbicides such as organochlorine, organophosphorus and phenoxyacetic acid, which were widely used in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and public health. However, some of this generation of pesticides due to high residue, highly toxic, causing ecological pollution, has been banned by many countries. (Pyrethroid is a plant with insecticidal effect) is a bionic pesticide, the amount of only a few grams per acre, do not pollute the environment, has been put into industrial production. In addition, bio-pesticides are one of the most active areas in pesticide research in the 21st century.


Modern agricultural application of plastic film (such as high-pressure polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene, etc.), used for plastic film or greenhouse seedlings, can significantly improve crop yields, ongoing large-scale promotion.


Medicine chemistry


Medicine and pharmacology has always been the field of human efforts to explore, in China's earliest pharmacy book "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic" (AD 1 century ago), recorded 365 kinds of drug performance, preparation and compatibility. Ming Li Shizhen's "Compendium of Materia Medica" contained in the drug has reached 1892 kinds of drugs. These drugs are taken from natural minerals or flora and fauna, most of them must be treated by the bubble, highlight the drug or eliminate the toxicity before use. From the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, the production of antipyretic analgesic aspirin, anti-syphilis "606" (arsenic preparations), antimalarial drugs of the equality of these chemical synthesis of low cost, high purity, free from natural conditions , Showing a significant effect. In the 1930s, the method of chemical analysis was used to identify the structure of vitamins in fruit and rice bran. The method of artificial synthesis was used to produce vitamin C and vitamin B1, which solved the problem of insufficient vitamin yield and quality instability from natural substances. contradiction. After the release of sulfa drugs in 1935, tens of thousands of puerperal fever patients were saved. The discovery and production of penicillin, in the Second World War, the treatment of sick and wounded, received a surprising effect. Streptomycin and sodium aminosyl salicylate, Remiffer, etc., have overcome the threat of human malnutrition in a historical period. Smallpox, plague, typhoid, etc., until the 19th century, has been one of the uncontrollable diseases of mankind, anti-virus vaccine into industrial production, it basically eliminated these infectious diseases. 21st century vaccine is still a powerful weapon against human and viral diseases. There are a variety of clinical chemical reagents and a variety of new drug formulations continue to emerge, so that the cause of health greatly improved, human health has more


Chemical products to the people is rich and colorful, it is in addition to the production of a large number of materials used for making a variety of products used by people, there are very little use, but the effect is very obvious products, so that people's lives have been improved. For example: food additives for food preservative, seasoning and fortified nutrition; improving vegetable flour growth regulators and preservatives; feed additives for meat and eggs; production of raw materials and additives for cosmetics and spices, , Furniture and a variety of workers, equipment, decorative paint; a variety of printing ink with the pigment; and detergent products such as surfactants, and so on, too numerous to mention. As well as film (photographic material), recording (like) tape (magnetic recording material), and laser TV disc (CD) and so on. The use of these means of communication, can strengthen the communication contact, reproduce the historical scene, performing superb art. With the help of information recording materials, the expansion of people's vision into the space, deep seabed or deep internal organs, and even anatomical atomic structure, in order to improve the spiritual civilization of mankind, opened the mysteries of nature, provided the conditions.


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